Exploring Variations in Abstract Writing Formats and Structures Among Ph.D. Students


  • Sukirmiyadi Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jawa Timur




Dissertation, Abstract, Writing format


Background: The introduction, a crucial component of any research paper, must be well-written so that readers can evaluate its quality. A typical five-paragraph abstract includes an introduction, objective or purpose, methodology, findings/results, and conclusion. However, not all Ph.D. candidates follow this structure and format when writing their abstracts. Methodology:

The purpose of this study was to identify and describe variations in abstract writing formats and structures among Surabaya state university Ph.D. candidates. Using a qualitative descriptive methodology, the researchers analyzed 15 dissertation abstracts: eight from the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning at FTSP-ITS and seven from the Medical Science department at Airlangga University Surabaya. They examined the number of paragraphs and the structure of the abstract in each.


The study indicated various abstract structures and writing formats: 40% of the abstracts had three paragraphs, 26.66% had five paragraphs, 20% had four paragraphs, and 13.33% had one paragraph. In terms of abstract structure, 60% lacked a conclusion, 33.33% lacked an objective, 26.66% lacked all five abstract structures, 26.66% lacked both the objective and the conclusion, and 6.66% lacked an introduction.


In conclusion, the study found several variations in dissertation abstract writing formats regarding both paragraph count and abstract structure.


The novelty of this study rests in its focus on analyzing variations in abstract writing formats and structures among Surabaya state university Ph.D. candidates. By examining 15 dissertation abstracts from various faculties, this study sheds light on the inconsistencies and deviations from the standard format and structure of abstracts, which may impact readers' ability to comprehend and evaluate research papers. This study contributes to a better understanding of how Ph.D. students' abstract writing practices vary and identifies potential enhancement areas.