Teachers’ Use of Code Switching in An English as a Foreign Language Context in Indonesia

Lingga Agustina Suganda* -  Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia
Bambang A Loeneto -  Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia
Zuraida Zuraida -  Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia

DOI : 10.24903/sj.v3i2.202

This study proposed to investigate the phenomena of code switching which refers to the use of English and Indonesian as a medium of instruction used by the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in their classroom discourse. It depicted the attitudes of EFL teachers and their students towards the patterns, functions, and influence of code switching in two EFL classes in Indonesia. The data were collected from classroom observation, interview, and questionnaire which explored the occurrence of code switching during the teaching and learning process as well as the teachers and students’ perception on its use in the classroom context. The results indicated that the switching between English and Indonesian in the EFL classrooms was very natural since it also became a tool to show the cultural, social, and communicative aspects of each language despite the amount of its use which varied greatly from teacher to teacher due to their students’ English competence.

Supplement Files

code switching, medium of instruction, English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
  1. Ahmad, B. H., & Jusoff, K. (2009). Teachers’ code-switching in classroom instructions for low English proficient learners. English Language Teaching, 2(2), 49-55.
  2. Bhatia, J.K., & Ritchie, W.C. (2004). Social and Psychological factors in language mixing. In W.C. Ritchie and T.K. Bhatia (eds), Handbook of Bilingualism, 336-352. Blackwell Publishing.
  3. Bensen, H., & Cavusoglu, C. (2013). Reasons for the teachers’ uses of code-switching in adult EFL classrooms. Sayi, 20(2), 69-82.
  4. Brock-Utne, B. (2007). Learning through a Familiar Language versus Learning through a Foreign Language: A Look into some Secondary School Classrooms in Tanzania. International Journal of Educational Development, 27(2007), 487-498.
  5. Brock-Utne, B., & Alidou, H. (2011). Active students-learning through a language they master. In Ouane, A.& Glanz, C. (Eds.). Optimising learning, education and publishing in Africa: the language factor. A review and analysis of theory and practice in mother tongue and bilingual education in sub- Saharan Africa. 187- 216. UIL/ADEA.
  6. Cantoni, M. (2007). What role does the language of instruction play for a successful education? - A case study of the impact of language choice in a Namibian school. http://www.essays.se/essay/a867c0f100/
  7. Ellis, R. (2015). Oal: Understanding second language acquisition 2nd edition: Oxford applied linguistics. Oxford University Press.
  8. Fareed, M., Humayun, S., & Akhtar, H. (2016). English language teachers’ code-switching in class: ESL learners’ perceptions. Journal of Education & Social Sciences, 4(1), 1-11.
  9. Fishman, J. A. (1971). Sociolinguistics: Origins, Definitions and Approaches. In N. Coupland and Adam Jaworski (Eds.). Sociolinguistics: A reader and coursebook (pp. 5-11). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  10. Gabusi, V. (2007). Code-switching uses: The focus on the teacher - Applied analysis in a high school context. http://www.facli.unibo.it/NR/rdonlyres/...A2FB.../TesinadiValentinaGabusi.pdf.
  11. Greene, M. D., & Walker, R. F. (2004).Recommendations to public speaking instructors for the negotiation of code-switching practices among black English-speaking African America students.The Journal of Negro Education, 73(4), 435-442.
  12. Hamers, J. F. & Blanc, M. H. A. (2000). Bilinguality and bilingualism. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  13. Heugh, K. (2000). The case against bilingual and multilingual education in South Africa. PRAESA Occasional Paper No. 6. Cape Town: PRAESA.
  14. Jingxia, L. (2010). Teachers’ Code switching to the L1 in EFL Classroom. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal, 3(1), 10–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874913501003010010.
  15. Kim, E. (2006). Reasons and motivations for code-mixing and code-switching. Issues in EFL 4(1), 43-61.
  16. Kyeyune, R. (2010). Challenges of using English as a medium of instruction in multilingual contexts: A view from Ugandan classrooms.Language, Culture and Curriculum. 16 (2), 173-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07908310308666666.
  17. Liddicoat, A. J., Papademetre, L., Scarino, A., & Kohler, M. (2003). Report on intercultural language learning. Canberra ACT: Commonwealth of Australia.
  18. Lin, A. M. Y. (2007). Code-switching in the classroom: Research paradigms and approaches. Encyclopedia of language and education (pp. 3464-3477), accessed on March 3, 2009 from http://springerlink.metapress.com/content.
  19. Liu, J. (2010). Teachers’ code-switching to the L1 in EFL classroom. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal, 3, 10-23. http:www.benthamopen.com/contents/pdf/TOALJ/TOALJ-3-10.pdf.
  20. Mattsson, A. F., & Burenhult, N. (1999). Code switching in second language teaching of French. Working Papers, 47, 59-72.
  21. Moghadam, S. H., Samad, A. A., & Shahraki, E. R. (2012). Code-Switching as a medium of instruction in an EFL classroom. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(11), 2219-2225.
  22. Mokhtar, M. M. (2015). Lecturers’ and students’ beliefs in code-switching: a Malaysian polytechnic context. TEFLIN Journal, 26(1), 85-96.
  23. Setati, M., Adler, J., Reed, Y., & Bapoo, A. (2002). Incomplete journeys: code switching and other language practices in mathematics, science and English language classroms in South Africa. Language and Education. 16, 128-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500780208666824.
  24. Suganda, L. A. & Zuraida. (2016). Code switching used in the English teaching and learning process in the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education at Sriwijaya University. Proceedings International Conference 2nd Sriwijaya University Language and Education (SULE-IC), 649-668.
  25. Tam, A. C. F. (2011). Does the switch of medium of instruction facilitate the language learning of students? A case study of Hong Kong from teachers’ perspective. Language and Education, 25(5), 399-417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2011.573076.
  26. Webb, V. (2004). African languages as media of instruction in South Africa: Stating the case. Language Problems and Language Planning. 28 (2), 147-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/lplp.28.2.04web.
  27. Wolff, E. (2011). Language politics and planning. In Ouane, A. & Glanz, C. (Eds.) Optimising learning, education and publishing in Africa: the language factor. A review and analysis of theory and practice in mother tongue and bilingual education in sub-Saharan Africa. 49-104. IUL/ADEA.
  28. Yataganbaba, E., & Yildirim, R. (2015). EFL Teachers’ Code Switching in Turkish Secondary EFL Young Language Learner Classrooms. International Journal of Linguistics, 7(1), 82-101.
  29. Zentella, A. C. (1999). Growing up bilingual. Malden. MA: Balckwell.

Full Text: Supp. File(s):
Copyright Transfer Agreement Form
Type Copyright Transfer Agreement Form
  Download (452KB)    Indexing metadata
Article Info
Submitted: 2018-04-02
Published: 2018-10-13
Section: Articles
Article Statistics: 392 99