Polysemy and Metaphorical Extensions of Temperature Terms: Warm and Cool

Abstract views: 443 , PDF downloads: 138
Copyright agreement for Script Journal downloads: 0
Keywords: polysemy, semantic network, extended senses

Abstract

This study focuses on describing the concept and the extended senses of warm and cool in English. As these temperature terms contain more than one semantic representation, this study aims at finding out the prototypical meaning, the extended senses, and the relation between the prototypical meaning and the extended senses of these lexemes. The word warm has three extended senses, namely: (1) friendly, (2) pleasant to other senses, and (3) near the goal of the game. Furthermore, the word cool whose prototypical meaning is “having a low temperature” has four senses, namely: (1) calm, (2) unfriendly, (3) fashionable and (4) agreeable. These three words which are originally expressed to describe the degree of heat are extended to describe other human physical experience. The extension of those senses is motivated by metaphors as the temperature domain is pervasive to express non-temperature entity. The discussion highlights the relations between the central sense and the extended ones. The relation of the senses enables us to draw the semantic networks of polysemy warm and cool.

Author Biography

Truly Almendo Pasaribu, Universitas Sanata Dharma
Truly A. Pasaribu has been teaching English since 2013

References

Ahmad, K. (2000). Neologisms , Nonces and Word Formation. Word Journal Of The International Linguistic Association, II(August), 1–13.

Arcimavičienė, L. (2011). The complex metaphor of political animals in media political discourse: A cross-linguistic perspective. Studies about Languages, 23.

Areshenkoff, C. N., Bub, D. N., & Masson, M. E. J. (2017). Task-dependent motor representations evoked by spatial words: Implications for embodied accounts of word meaning. Journal of Memory and Language, 92, 158–169. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2016.06.006

Birse, E. L. (1971). Assessment of climatic conditions in Scotland (3rd ed.). Aberdeen: Macaulay Institute for Soil Research.

Course, M. (2018). Words beyond meaning in Mapuche language ideology. Language & Communication, 63, 9–14. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2018.03.007

Cruse, A. (2000). Meaning In Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Deignan, A. (2006). Deignan, A. 2006. “The Grammar of Linguistic Metaphors”. Dalam: Stefanowitsch, A. & Gries, S.Th., penyunting. Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 106 — 122. In A. Stefanowitsch & S. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy (p. 106— 122). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Evans, V., & Green, M. (2006). Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Falkum, I. L., & Vicente, A. (2015). Polysemy : Current Perspectives and Approaches. Linguia, (1), 1–39.

Finegan, E., Besnier, N., Blair, D., & Collins, P. (1992). Language: Its Structure and Use. Sydney: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Hayani, R. (2016). Figurative language on maya angelou selected, 1(2), 131–143.

Ibarretxe-Antuñano, B. (1999). Polysemy and Metaphor in Perception Verbs: A Cross-Linguistic Study. University of Edinburgh.

Inčiuraitė, L. (2013). Semantic meaning of colours in John Milton’s poem paradise lost. Studies about Languages, 23.

Kleparski, G. A. (2007). Hot pants, cold fish and cool customers. Seria Filologiczna.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (2003). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Langacker, R. (2008). Cognitive Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Linkevičiūtė, V. (2013). Conceptual metaphors in gordon brown’s political discourse (2007–2008). Studies about Languages, 23.

Lorenzetti, M. I. (n.d.). “ That girl is hot , her dress is so cool , and I ’ m just chilling out now ”: Emergent metaphorical usages of temperature terms in English and Italian. Unpublished Full Paper, 1–14.

Maine, F., & Hofmann, R. (2016). Talking for meaning: The dialogic engagement of teachers and children in a small group reading context. International Journal of Educational Research, 75, 45–56. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2015.10.007

Moreno, A. I. (2005). An Analysis of Cognitive Dimension of Proverbs in English and Spanish: The Conceptual Power of Language Reflecting Popular Believes. SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, 2(1), 42–54.

Pasaribu, T. A. (2013). Analisis Linguistik Kognitif pada Polisemi Leksem CUT. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Pasaribu, T. A. (2014). Polysemy and semantic extension of lexeme “Hot.” Language and Language Teaching Journal, 17(1), 51–60.

Pasaribu, T. A. (2016). Domains of Political Metaphors in Presidential Speeches. Language and Language Teaching Journal, 19(2).

Pasaribu, Truly Almendo. (2013). Analisis Linguistik Kognitif pada Polisemi Leksem CUT. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Pasaribu, Truly Almendo. (2014). Polysemy and semantic extension of lexeme “Hot.” Language and Language Teaching Journal, 17(1), 51–60.

Šeškauskienė, I., & Levandauskaitė, T. (2013). Conceptualising Music: Metaphors of Classical Music Reviews. Studies about Languages. https://doi.org/ttps://doi.org/10.5755/j01.sal.0.23.5268

Shalihah, M. (2015). A look at the world through a word ”Shoes” : A componential analysis of meaning. Journal of Linguistics and Literature, 15(1).

Shalihah, Miftahush. (2015). A Look at the World through a Word ” Shoes ” : A Componential Analysis of Meaning, 15(1).

Srinivasan, M., Al-Mughairy, S., Foushee, R., & Barner, D. (2017). Learning language from within: Children use semantic generalizations to infer word meanings. Cognition, 159, 11–24. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2016.10.019

Stasiūnaitė, I. (2018). On the Motivated Polysemy of the Lithuanian ŽEMIAU Below. Studies about Languages, 2824(32), 5–20. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.sal.32.0.19290

Tyler, A., & Evans, V. (2001). Reconsidering prepositional polysemy networks: The case of over. Language, 77.

Velykoroda, Y. (2019). Conceptual Metaphorization through Precedent-related Phenomena in Media Discourse. Studies about Languages, 34, 32–45.

Wijana, I. D. P. (2012). The use of English in Indonesian adolescent ’ S SLANG, 24(3), 315–323.

Wijaya, G. P. (2011). Polisemi pada Leksem Head: Tinjauan Linguistik Kognitif. Universitas Udayana.

Yasin, A. H., Mustafa, M. A., & Faysal, T. A. (2010). Neologism a s a Linguistic Phenomenon in Mass Media Textbook w ith Reference to Translation by Abst ra c t T he Conc e pt of N e ologism.

Yin, Z. (2016). Register-specific meaning categorization of linking adverbials in English. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 22, 1–18. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2016.01.004

Published
2019-10-20
How to Cite
PasaribuT. A. (2019). Polysemy and Metaphorical Extensions of Temperature Terms: Warm and Cool. Script Journal: Journal of Linguistics and English Teaching, 4(2), 101-111. https://doi.org/10.24903/sj.v4i2.322
Section
Articles