Main Article Content
Numerous positive gains have been reported on the use of technology in language learning. The current survey of published journal articles reveals a lack of research on its integration to language teaching and learning in graduate language classrooms in EFL settings. In this study, the use of QR codes in the graduate EFL classroom has been investigated concerning its relatedness to affective language learning attributes (herein referred to as ALLAs) including anxiety, engagement, motivation, self-esteem, among others during the lesson on the process of writing. Three objectives were sought (1) to know students’ perceptions on ALLAs before and after the use of QR codes, (2) to establish the relationship between students’ perceived ALLAs and language performance, and (3) to understand specific situations that trigger positive or negative reactions.
The students were asked to indicate their perceptions concerning ALLAs by using a survey questionnaire before and after the activity. They were also asked to do the QR codes activity to create an essay outline. Further, an open-ended questionnaire was provided to indicate their negative or positive reactions to specific situations during the QR-coded activity.
Results suggest the following (1) there are significant differences in the students’ perceived ALLAs before and after the activity, (2), there is a significant positive correlation between ALLAs and language performance, and (3) twelve specific situations were found to provoke dynamic ALLAs reactions.
It is suggested that the use of available technological innovations must be introduced to graduate language teachers as its impacts on ALLAs are overwhelmingly beneficial.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Al-Khalifa, H. S. (2011). An M-learning System Based on Mobile Phones and Quick Response Codes. Journal of Computer Science, 7(3), 427–430.
- Arnold, J., & Brown, H. D. (1999). A Map of The Terrain. Affect in Language Learning, 2–21.
- Durak, G., Ozkeskin, E., & Ataiza, M. (2016). QR Codes in Education and Communication. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education – TOJDE, 17(2), 42–58.
- Gömleksiz, M. N. (2010). An evaluation of students’ attitudes toward English language learning in terms of several variables. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 913–918. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.258
- Henter, R. (2014). Affective Factors Involved in Learning a Foreign Language. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 127, 373–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.274
- Horwitz, E. (2001). Language Anxiety and Achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21(1), 112–126.
- Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125–132.
- Kalra, R., & Siribud, S. (2020). Public speaking anxiety in the Thai EFL context. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85079679011&partnerID=40&md5=7b10a45715eeadd4b2e8ae7b5436e71f
- Lee, J. H., & Lo, Y. Y. (2017). An exploratory study on the relationships between attitudes toward classroom language choice, motivation, and proficiency of EFL learners. System, 67, 121–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.04.017
- MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and Second-Language Learning: Toward a Theoretical Clarification*. Language Learning, 39(2), 251–275. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00423.x
- McCabe, M., & Tedesco, S. (2012). Using QR Codes and Mobile Devices to Foster an Inclusive Learning Environment for Mathematics Education. International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education, 1(1), 37–43. https://doi.org/10.20533/ijtie.2047.0533.2012.0006
- Midraj, S. (2003). Affective Factors and ESL Learning. Proceedings of the 5th and 6th Current Trends in English Language Testing, 19-32.
- Rivers, D. J. (2009). Utilizing the Quick Response (QR) Code within a Japanese EFL Environment. Jaltcalljournal, 5(2), 15–28.
- Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Situmoranga, R., Siangb, J. L., Ibrahimc, N., & Lagunsiangd, J. (2019). Development of Collaborative Learning Materials Based on QR Code to Facilitate Learning. Development, 8(6).
- Vo, T. D., Wilang, J., & Samoilova, V. (2017). Debilitating Effects of Anxiety on Engineering Students’ Language Performances. The International Conference on Innovation in Education.
- Yang, Q.-F., Chang, S.-C., Hwang, G.-J., & Zou, D. (2020). Balancing cognitive complexity and gaming level: Effects of a cognitive complexity-based competition game on EFL students’ English vocabulary learning performance, anxiety and behaviors. Computers and Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103808