Research on Technology Competencies in EFL Language Instructors: Technology-Pedagogy-Content in Language Teaching


  • Rodrigo Tovar Viera Technical University of Cotopaxi
  • Diego Ismael Velasco Sánchez University of the Armed Forces, ESPE-L



TPCK competency, classroom practices, computer literate


Living in the digital era where the information and communication technologies (ICTs) have extensively changed the way of teaching, language instructors, in particular, should be computer literate to put their technical knowledge into practice in such a way they effectively integrate technology into language learning classrooms.

The research contextualizes teachers’ beliefs and competencies of using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) in teaching English as a foreign language. The study is an extension of previous research carried out by Tovar et at., (2019), and Tovar (2019). It applied a survey-based questionnaire, an unstructured interview, and classroom observations for data collection. The assessment instruments were administrated to EFL language instructors, who work in the Language Center at the Technical University of Cotopaxi.

Results revealed that a high percentage of the EFL language instructors are not familiar with the use of the TPCK model and its integration into their classroom practices. This support the claim that teachers probably have technological knowledge, but they are not well-prepared to combine teaching resources and appropriate pedagogical methods for language teaching and learning.

The study hopes that research outcomes arise linguistic implications and pedagogical applications for developing teachers’ TPCK competencies when integrating technology in EFL classroom settings. Limitations, as well as considerations for further research, are discussed.

Author Biographies

Rodrigo Tovar Viera, Technical University of Cotopaxi

Rodrigo Tovar Viera is assistant professor at the Technical University of Cotopaxi, Latacunga-Ecuador and currently PhD candidate in Applied Linguistics at University of Szeged, Hungary. He held his master’s degrees in Applied Linguistics to bilingual teaching: English-Spanish and University Teaching and Educative administration from Catholic University and Indoamerica University of Ecuador, respectively. He has also gained an ESL diploma from Army Polytechnic School, School of Languages. His scholarly interest includes SLA and FLL, particularly vocabulary acquisition, academic writing, and language use. His PhD dissertation proposal focuses on the rhetorical organization and writing style of academic texts authored by native and non-native writers and published either in English or non-English-medium contexts. He has been speaker at paper conferences in Hungary, Croatia, Czech Republic and Ecuador. He taught language courses at the Faculty of humanities and language studies at Technical University of Cotopaxi, Ecuador.

Diego Ismael Velasco Sánchez, University of the Armed Forces, ESPE-L

Diego Velasco Sánchez is currently assistant professor at University of the Armed Forces, ESPE-L, Latacunga-Ecuador. He held his master's degree in Software and project management from University of the Armed Forces. He is Engineer, specialised in computer systems. He has also gained Microsoft international certificates.


Ahmadi, M. R. (2017). The Impact of Motivation on Reading Comprehension. International Journal of Research in English Education, 2(1), 1–7.

Ahmadi, M. R. (2018). The Use of Technology in English Language Learning: A Literature Review. International Journal of Research in English Education, 3(2), 115–125.

Ansyari, M. F. (2015). Designing and Evaluating A Professional Development Programme for Basic Technology Integration in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Classrooms. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 31(6), 699–712.

Atun, H., & Usta, E. (2019). The Effects ff Programming Education Planned with TPACK Framework on Learning Outcomes. Participatory Educational Research (PE), 6(2), 26–36. Retrieved from

Graham, C. R., Burgoyne, N., Cantrell, P., Smith, L., Clair, L. S., & Harris, R (2009). TPACK Development in Science Teaching: Measuring the TPACK confidence of in-service science teachers. Tech Trends, 53(5), 70–79.

Retrieved from

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). FacilitatingPpre-serviceTteachers’ Development of Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 63–73. Retrieved from

Cando, F., Tituaña, I., Bermardo Cando, B., & Lema, Y. (2018). Pedagogical technological competence of content in the areas of language and literature. Congress of Science and Technology, 13(1), 178–181. Retrieved from

Hechter, R.. P., & Vermette, L. A. (2013). Technology Integration in K-12 Science Classrooms: An analysis of barriers and implications. Themes in Science and Technology Education, 6(2), 73–90. Retrieved from

Hilton, J. T. (2016). A Case Study of the Application of SAMR and TPACK for Reflection on Technology Integration into Two Social Studies Classrooms. The Social Studies, 107(2), 68–73.

Hofer, M., & Grandgenett, N. (2012). TPACK Development in Teacher Education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 45(1), 83–106.

Genç İlter, B. (2015). How does Technology Affect Language Learning Process at an Early Age? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 311–316.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2015). TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge). In J. Spector (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Technology (pp. 783–786).

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Kereluik, K., Shin, T. S., & Graham, C. R. (2014). The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework. In J.M. Spector et al. (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 101–111).

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Yahya, K. (2007). Tracing The Development of Teacher Knowledge in A Design Seminar: Integrating Content, Pedagogy and Technology. Computers & Education, 49(3), 740–762.

Koehler M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing Technological Pedagogical Knowledge. In I. AACTE (Ed.), The Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Educators (pp. 1–16). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group for the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education.

Kereluik, K., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2011). On Learning to Subvert Signs: Literacy, Technology and the TPACK Framework. Winter. The California Reader, 44(2), 12–18.

Lee, M. H. & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Exploring Teachers’ Perceived Self-Efficacy and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge With Respect To Educational Use Of The World Wide Web. Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 38(1), 1–21. Retrieved from

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.

Luu, K., & Freeman, J. G. (2011). An Analysis of The Relationship Between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Scientific Literacy in Canada and Australia. Computers & Education, 56(4), 1072–1082.

Schrum, L., Thompson, A., Maddux, C., Sprague, D., Bull, G., & Bell, L.(2007). Research on The Effectiveness of Technology In Schools: The roles of pedagogy and content. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 7(1), 456–460. Retrieved from

Windschitl, M. (2009). Cultivating 21st Century Skills in Science Learners: How systems of teacher preparation and professional development will have to evolve. National Academies of Science Workshop on 21st Century Skills, 1–23. Washington: Mark Windschitl, University of Washington.

Miller, S. M. (2008). Teacher Learning for New Times: Repurposing New Multimodal Literacies and Digital Video Composing for Schools. In & D. L. J. Flood, S.B. Heath (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching literacy through the communicative and visual arts (pp. 441–460). New York, NY: International Reading Association/Simon & Schuster Macmillan.

Mishra, P., & Koehler M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.

Niess, M. L. (2005). Preparing Teachers to Teach Science and Mathematics with Technology: Developing a technology pedagogical content knowledge. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(5), 509–523.

Wachira, P., & Keengwe, J. (2011). Technology Ntegration Barrieris: Urban school mathematics teachers’ perspectives. Journal of Science Education Technology, 20(1), 17–25. Retrieved from

Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123–149.

Tai, S.-J. D. (2013). From TPACK-in-Action Workshops to English classrooms: CALL competencies developed and adopted into classroom teaching (Doctoral dissertation). Iowa State University, Iowa, USA.

Tanak, A. (2018). Designing TPACK-Based Course for Preparing Student Teachers to Teach Science with Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 1–7.

Tovar, R. (2019). Examining Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Competency. IV International congress, CSIU: Science, society and university research. Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 22-24 October. Ambato, Ecuador.

Tovar, R., Chacon, M., Cisneros, C., & Noroña, M. (2019). The TPCK Framework for Technology Integration in Language Teaching. In R. V. M. (CEO) (Ed.), First International Congress of Teacher Education Development-CIDU. Quevedo, Ecuador: Quevedo State Technical University.

Van Olphen, M. (2008). TPCK: An Integrated Framework for Educating World Language Teachers. In et al. A. A. of C. for T. E. Mary C. (Ed.), Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 107–128). New York, NY: Routledge for the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.